COMETS  AS  CAPACITORS

        Understanding why some comets disintegrate when approaching the sun is analogous to understanding the function of an electrical capacitor. In designing an electrical circuit one must make sure the planned capacitor meets or exceeds the required voltage rating. Otherwise, its dielectric (insulation) material will be zapped by the stored electrical charge.

        In the realm of astronomy and astrophysics there appears to be much confusion in understanding comets. There is nothing mysterious or complicated about a capacitor: two conductors separated by an insulating material, a non-conducting substance (the dielectric) can be paper, plastic film, mica 1.), glass, ceramic, or other materials. Capacitors can store an electric charge, how much depends upon their size or rating. You can charge a low-rated capacitor by attaching its two leads to a 9-volt battery. After charging and disconnection, the capacitor will gradually lose its charge as the electrons slowly leak through the dielectric (insulation) material until both conductors (plates or poles) have an equal charge. Equal charge is important in understanding exploding comets.

Now think on a greatly-expanded scale and consider a “solar capacitor.” The sun is a huge, positive-charged energy source, but its function is similar to a small scale, 9-volt battery. A comet can be considered a negative-charged capacitor. It can also be a negative-charged conductor with the surrounding space between the comet and sun acting as the insulating medium or dielectric material, but this ‘space’ is not a vacuum and therein lays an element of unpredictability in forecasting the character and actions of comets. 2.)

Comets with more circular orbits in comparably-close association with the inner planets tend to be more stable because they have a close-in solar orbit, and have, over long time periods, adjusted to the highly-charged, environment around the positive-charged sun. However, comets, or any body occupying long-duration elliptical orbits taking them great distances from the sun have a greatly-reduced negative charge at their furthermost point from the sun – their aphelion. As they approach their perihelion, their closest distance to the sun, and depending upon several variables, they can be charged beyond their ‘electrical rating’ and explode. A comet coming too close to earth can also disintegrate for the same reason. This is probably what happened at the Tunguska Event of 1908, in Siberia, the same as the recent Shumaker-Levy Event with Jupiter, and the Chelyabinsk, Russia, meteor/meteorite event in February, 2013.

        The “dirty snowball” or “icy ball” descriptions of comets fall into a misleading, descriptive category that should embarrass the scientific community. With today’s advanced knowledge coming from space probes and space telescopes, the terms comet and asteroid are interchangeable. If comets look like solid rocks, as asteroids do, then they probably ARE solid rocks. Very little hydrogen has been found in comets as in the case of Comet Linear (2000), Borrelly (2001), Wild 2 (Vilt 2, 2004), and others. Although evidence of hydrogen was indicated in its coma, Comet Tempel 1- Deep Impact, found no evidence of any ice on its surface.

        Comets have also been known to have erratic movement which has been described as “non-gravitational.” Jets erupting from ‘outgasing’ has been the explanation for such phenomena. A NASA release regarding Comet Linear as it neared the sun stated: “Powerful jets of gas vaporized by solar radiation have been pushing the comet to and fro.” The gravitationally-measured mass of a small comet, even though comparably huge relative to man, will be lower than expected and the presumed effect of gravity will be misleading. 3.) In the Electric Universe Model (EU) gravity is not a dominate force in deep space. This erratic movement, this ‘pushing to and fro’ mentioned by NASA, could be caused by unstable “electrical charging,” and coupled with an increasing charge accumulation, the resulting electrical stress can cause disintegration in comets. And a crucial point related to the plasma characteristics of the space surrounding comet C/2012 S1 (ISON): at a particular time, solar flare intensities, especially during a Coronal Mass  Ejection (CME), may determine erratic movement and unstable physical conditions in a comet. And, a disquieting scenario: by unlucky circumstance, if Comet ISON has a direct encounter with a violent, extreme CME, it could experience unpredictable change. Electrical polarization (unequal physical effects at different points in a body) affecting a comet’s gravitational characteristics can affect its orbit.

        So, we have a confusing situation affecting the outcome of comet ISON (due in November) because of conflicting beliefs concerning the definition of comets, their origins, their elliptical characteristics, and their close perihelion with the sun. This could be an earth-changing event depending upon two observations: 1.) A possible changing gravitational Constant G which can change the comet’s orbit, and 2.), a very likely overcharging of the comet/capacitor because of its relatively small negative charge as it moves from a low-charge, deep-space environment into an area in the inner solar system that may contain more energetic electric fields (condensed plasma concentrations?) that would generate more electrical potential between ISON and the sun. The concern, if comet ISON explodes, is that some fragments could be created with unpredictable trajectories. At this writing, the comet’s exact orbit has not been determined. Supposedly, it will not impact earth but present data says it will be very close to the sun at its perihelion – so close that NASA warns it would be inadvisable to observe it without eye protection. ISON may receive maximum charge at its perihelion. Let us hope that a balance of electrical charge, physical make-up (not a dirty snowball), and its size, can withstand the stress of its solar encounter, and we may observe one of the greatest astronomical events in hundreds of years.

        An important point explained by the EU Model: since C/2012 S1 (ISON) is a negative-charged body with respect to the positive-charged sun, as it accelerates toward the sun, it will encounter those characteristics of its surrounding space contributing to the electrical potential it develops, how much charge it can hold, and the dispersal rate of those charges. At a certain point it will switch from, what plasma-scientists describe as, a Dark Mode to a Glow Mode. Initially, the general public will be able to see the comet as a dimly-lit star, but eventually it will be visible in daytime. Will it remain intact or will it disintegrate – scattering remnants into the inner solar system? No one knows at this point. ISON is almost two miles in diameter, is presently inside the orbit of Jupiter, is “remarkably bright,” although millions of miles from the sun, and may turn out to be the brightest comet ever.

        The acceptance and understanding of the Electric Universe (the EU Model) in my opinion, is one of several significant changes ushering out the end of the Maya, fifth year that began in 3114BC, and the beginning of a new period. That is the message the Mayan Calendar ending in 2012 gave us.

Alan Cornette –  April 10, 2013

(1.)       MICA:  In 1906, in the upper levels of the Teotihuacan Pyramid of the Sun at Mexico City, a thick layer of sheet mica was discovered. It was removed and sold by the commissioned party supposed to be restoring it. But near the Pyramid of the Sun, another pyramid (the Mica pyramid) was found to contain two massive sheets of mica, 90 feet square in two layers, one on top of the other. Mica has distinct characteristics of trace elements depending upon rock formations in which it is found. The mica layered beneath the floor of heavy stones in the Mica Pyramid came from Brazil – 2,000 miles away!

            Now, two important questions: 1.) Why install large sheets of mica beneath a floor in the upper levels of a pyramid, and, 2.) How was it transported from Brazil to Central America in very ancient times? Could mica be hidden inside the Great Pyramid of Egypt? As far as we know, no other ancient structure in the world has this feature. Neither can I explain how this mica was transported from Brazil to Central America, nor can state at this point that pyramids can store energy as the popular conception declared a few years back. But, sheets of mica, an excellent insulation (a dielectric), were installed in these two pyramids, and all logical reasoning to explain the existence of the mica points to an electrical connection/explanation. Could pyramid physical characteristics be compatible with an energy device (a huge capacitor) able to interact with solar energy through ejection of solar particles, or other means, and provide energy used in some way by ancient societies of Central America? Could the shape of pyramids interact with the electrical properties of all surrounding space and accumulate a useable electrical charge – the mica being used as an insulator to prevent grounding and thus loss of the energy?

(2.)     Space was once thought to be a vacuum. Space contains positive ions and negative electrons – PLASMA.  Plasma is sometimes called the fundamental state of matter and constitutes more than 99 percent of the visible universe. The universe is pervaded by magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation. Magnetic fields cannot exist without electric current

(3.)       It is my belief that gravity is a variable force proportional to mass and distance between bodies, and directly related to electromagnetism, i.e., there would be no gravity interaction between our sun and its nearest neighbor star, Proxima, in the double-star system Alpha Centauri. Our sun and Proxima are like two pieces of dust, 4 miles apart. But, particles as small as dust (sand is 60 microns and larger) would certainly be subject to electromagnetic forces in space. Dust in space is about 60 microns or smaller. Fresh stardust is about 0.1, less than one tenth of one micron. One inch equals 25,000 microns. Gravity should play no part between extremely isolated, large bodies, or dust particles in space. Electromagnetic forces would dominate.

References:

 Wallace Thornhill, David Talbott. The Electric Universe.  Mikamar Publishing, Portland, Oregon. 2002                                                                                                                                         Graham Hancock. Fingerprints of the Gods. Crown Publishing, New York. 1995                           Donald E. Scott. The Electric Sky. Mikamar Publishing, Portland, Oregon. 2006                        Hannah Holmes. The Secret Life of Dust. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. 2001

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2009/23dec_voyager/